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Sapphire Rocking Cell

Research of Gas Hydrates

The Sapphire Rocking Cell is a laboratory instrument to research and test low-dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI), corrosion inhibitors (KI), AA and KHI and also multi-phases. 
The full view polished test cells are made of sapphire glass.

 

Characteristics

  • Full view polished test cells
  • 3 designs: 2, 6, 8 or up to 20 test cells
  • Pressure up to 200 bar 
  • Ball run-time measurement
  • Turbulent mixing conditions simulate pipeline conditions
  • Long term experiments up to 30 days and more
  • Variable and automated tests
  • Optional Sour gas testing

Applications

  • Product safety for deepwater application
  • Test of low-dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI), corrosion inhibitor (KI), AA and KHI
  • Multi-phase flow testing
  • Optimization of inhibitor concentration

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The Present Situation
The oil and gas production in cold regions and in the subsea deepwater require the further development of Low-Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors (LDHI) as Kinetical Hydrate Inhibitors (KHI) and in particular the Anti-Agglomerants (AA).
The standard procedure to analyze gas hydrate inhibitors is to monitor the pressure and temperature profile.
The demand on laboratory equipment for research on Anti-Agglomerants is the possibility to verify if the transport of dispersed gas hydrate in the fluid flow of a pipeline can be ensured. Furthermore should the composed gas hydrate be directly observable. Using conventional lab equipment this can not be achieved. For approval of a new gas hydrate inhibitor in-field a detailed statistical check of effectiveness is necessary. The objection is to do the necessary amount of tests in the least possible time.

Our Solution:
The PSL Sapphire Rocking Cell offers an observation and measuring possibility as laboratory instrument attuned to the research on anti-agglomerants. The sapphire test cells are pressure-proof and can be used simultaneously in high amount.
Deepwater conditions can be simulated with the up to 200 bar (2,900 psi) covering test cells. Depending on the setup it is possible to use up to 20 sapphire cells at the same time. With the ball run-time measurement the pumpability of the dispersed gas hydrate can be tested and conclusions about viscosity changes can be drawen. The design based on Champion Technologies Sapphire Rocking Cell.

The Specialty
The sapphire test cells are completely transparent. The whole sample chamber is visible for close observation of the samples behaviour and the structure of the composed gas hydrates. In addition the tests can be recorded by a video camera. For the first time it is possible to observe if hydrates are gathering or compacting on less turbulent areas. Furthermore the interaction of LDHIs and different additional substances like corrosion inhibitors (CI), asphaltene inhibitors (AI), wax inhibitors (WI) or scale inhibitors (SI) are accessible by experimental data. Free water or oil phases are detectable.

Your Benefit
With the Sapphire Rocking Cell you can save up to 50 % of your development and measuring times compared to the actually used test methods. Your project costs reduce accordingly.
Testing of Anti-Agglomerants with the Sapphire Rocking Cell will get you much more accurate results. It fulfills the needed stringent conditions for evaluate inhibitors for deepwater application. Anti-Agglomerants can be optimized and adjusted to your application and actual operating conditions which allows a significant increase in product safety.

Advantages of the Sapphire Rocking Cell

  • Completly visible sapphire test cell for optimization of inhibitors
  • Ball run-time measurement enables research on anti-agglomerants
  • Up to 20 test cells afford savings up to 50% on development and project times
  • Stringent test conditions for improvement on product safety on deepwater application
  • Plug-and-Play concept
  • Three model types available and customizing of each model possible

The Measuring Principle
The measuring principle of the Rocking Cell is based on the constant tilting (rocking) of temperature-controlled, pressurized test cells (rocking cells). By tilting a inserted ball rolls through the entire length of the test cell and mixes the contained fluid-gas mixture. The ball movement induces strong shear forces and turbulences inside the test cell which simulated the conditions inside a pipeline. A typical experiment can be divided into the three phases flowing conditions, shut-in and restart flowing conditions.

The Test Procedure
For a test the cell are filled with sample fluid (water, oil or condensate) and the desired amount of inhibitor. The cells are then cooled to the default test temperature. Each single cell can then be filled with an individual pressure up to 200 bar (2,900 psi) afterwards. The up to 20 test cells are mounted on a movable axle inside of a bath with cooling liquid.
All test parameters like e.g. rocking angle, rocking rate and time of test periods can be scheduled via software, so a programmed experiment can be started with a simple push on a button.
Ball run-time is determined by induction sensors, this ensures an accurate time measurement even in dark and opaque fluids. A camera can be controlled via software for automatic recording of pictures and videos at any time of the experiment.
After test completion cleaning and refilling is easy and done fast. The cooling bath is lowered, the test cells are then easily accessible and can be removed from their mountings.

Your Requirement
The Sapphire Rocking Cell is available in three types: the Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS2 with two test cells and extended 180° rocking angle, the Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with up to 6 test cells for small spacing and the Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS20 with up to 20 test cells. The Sapphire Rocking Cell can be adapted to your needs to match the optimal setting for your application.

The measuring principle of the rocking cell is based on the steady tilting of cooled, pressurised test cells (rocking cells). While tilting, a ball inside the camber is steadily rolling over the length of the test chamber, thereby blending the fluid-gas mixture.
The movement of the ball creates strong shear forces and turbulences in the test chamber. Thus, the conditions in pipelines are reproduced.

For testing the test chambers are filled with a sample fluid (water or other) and a certain amount of inhibitor. The test chambers are cooled down to a given test temperature. Subsequently, the central gas supply is used, to fill each chamber to the individually required pressure of up to 200 bar (2,900 psi) for multiple tests with different starting conditions. As alternative all chambers could be run with the same pressure.

Research of Gas Hydrates with the Sapphireglass Rocking Cell

With the Sapphireglass Rocking Cell by PSL Systemtechnik hydrate-formation can be examined and effectiveness and efficiency of anti-agglomerants and kinetic hydrate inhibitors as well as the influence of corrosion inhibitors can be tested with up to 20 different test conditions.

Characteristics

  • Measurement of intrinsic viscosity by ball run time and determination of blocking point
  • up to 20 movable test chambers
  • Separately adjustable pressure up to 200 bar (2,900 psi)
  • Turbulent mixing for stringent conditions
  • Long-time experiments up to 30 days and more
  • Variable test settings, restart, shut-down, multiple ramps, cycles etc.
  • Compact and automated with integrated PC
  • Easy filling and cleaning by removing of test cells

Applications

  • Stress test of anti-agglomerants (AA)
  • Examination of kinetic gas hydrate inhibitors (KHI)
  • Influence of corrosion inhibitors (CI)
  • Optimisation of inhibitor concentrations
  • Quality control

A computer controlled camera enables the shooting of pictures and videos at every time of an experiment.

The Sapphire Glass Rocking Cell can be adapted to your test conditions. Different configurations and adapted accessories like thermostats allow the optimal setting for your needs.

The Sapphire Glass Rocking Cell is available as large-scale installation and also as smaller version with up to 6 cells for reduced spaced conditions e.g. a fume hood.

 

 

 

The up to 20 test chambers are mounted on a movable axis in a closed cooling bath with cooling liquid. Only this axis is tilted during the test. Tilt angle and tilt frequency (rocking rate) can be adjusted via computer control

The test chambers are plug into their brackets and can thus be easily removed for filling or cleaning. The complete cell assembly is lifted for an easy access.

The pressure-resistant sapphire glass cells enable the  direct observation of the sample. With induction sensors the run-time of the balls is measured contact-free and gives the intrinsic viscosity of the sample. By this the ball run-time is determined exactly even in opaque oils.

Copyright © January 2019 PSL Systemtechnik GmbH